Thursday, February 22, 2018

Silk and Soft Hackles

AT left, treasure. It's a pile of Pearsall's silk thread from Lauren at The Painted Trout (link at right), my local fly shop. I suspect it is among the last spools I'll see.

Lauren asked her supplier to "send six of whatever you have in stock." Alas, no purple. One primrose ( I bought it) and a few orange. There are some other colors.

I picked these up Saturday after doing a little morning tying in the shop. Lauren and John helped me label the thread because I can't see the color and have to write it on the spool.

There's nothing here I cannot make work somehow.

I'm going to confess I gave away a couple stockpiled purple and a couple stockpiled orange to a gentlemen angler who is a friend of Lauren and Dirk's and who is a member of Dirk's trout club down in Ohio.

The fellow has tied soft-hackles forever. He thought he had some stockpiled thread. Turns out he didn't. I know how I'd feel if Bushmill's stopped making whiskey.

I bought too much thread (about 3 years worth). I'll use it. I used five spools last year (I save the little spools) so that was a lot of soft hackles. I tied in excess of 500 for sure. I gave a lot away. I'm converting folks.

There were several colors that I've neither seen nor used.

At left, some sort of light color. I thought it was salmon but I have grey written on the spool. Maybe I didn't buy any salmon thread.

Anyway, this very light thread is going to do well for me. I see a lot of twisted strand ribbing out of these two spools. I'll use it for close ribbing over dark thread bodies and have a nice "zebra" effect to test.

I've looked at Steve Bird's wasp/bee pattern for a bit and wonder, is the basic stripe ignored too often? I'll find out.

Some sort of new (to me) metallic sheen silk. Says "brown" on the label where I wrote it. I like it.

We'll see what kind of pattern it makes on a hook shank.

Lastly, this "dark claret" as I've got it labeled is wonderful. It has this translucent lushness when I dip it in water.

I'm going to use this for some ant patterns. I'll cover lashed foam bits with this thread and see how it goes in the end.

Yea, I know. Ants? Like how could you make an ant pattern better. Trout eat them when they see them, mostly.

Ahhh Hah! Let's get rid of that "mostly" business.

Anyway, I'm going to miss the small bobbin and the lovely feel of Pearsall's when it is all gone. I'll probably have to break down and buy a 1000 yard industrial bobbin of it sometime and spool it off on the little guys.

I know. Doesn't sound like a bad idea, does it?

Happy tying.


Monday, February 19, 2018

My Upstream Presentation of Soft-Hackled Flies

 I've caught a little "amber liquid" flack over the Baked Goods Illustrated segment of this blog. Seems the latest photos imply a degree of haughty achievement full of airs and illusion far outside the realm of normal Amber Liquid fare.

At left, this week's installment. I was off the leash while Beargirl was gone and indulged in forbidden food. In this case: pigs in a blanket.

Hebrew National dogs in a light biscuit dough. They were delightfully in the amber liquid wheelhouse.

No Bisquick here. That stuff tastes like Play-Doh. Yes, I know what Play-Doh tastes like. Doesn't everyone?

My Modern Wet Fly Code  would read: upstream, to a rising trout, from the river, with a soft-hackled wet.

Sound familiar? Yes, it is very much the pattern of upstream dry-fly. I'll outline below my upstream presentation tactics. Please, feel free to suggest where I might have gone awry. I catch fish using these techniques. Unlike Datus Proper, no trout I've asked has offered any sort of comment on my approach.

I'll keep asking.

My Upstream Presentation:

Soft-hackled flies are killers. However, there is a perception that they are swung down-and-across in an attention-absent manner suitable for the very young and very old. I say bullshit. These flies are best when actively fished. The upstream presentation is a good example.

The great WC Stewart of The Practical Angler fished his soft-hackles upstream with great success and he was surely a meat hunter: he paid his bills with his freshwater catch.

There's great sport in the soft-hackled fly. It takes a change of mindset to find it initially; but, once realized then all manner of technique is open to the angler. All it takes is a little nudge.

This little piece might be that nudge for someone.

A word on fly selection for the upstream scenario: I outline below a scenario in terms much as I fish a dry fly to a feeding trout. I fish soft hackles shallow in the same manner. To sighted feeding fish, I'm fishing so near the surface that I'm watching the take.

If I've no sighted fish and I'm fishing to habitat, I'm usually fishing deeper in the water column and I'm watching line and tippet for evidence of takes just as if freestyle nymphing in Colorado.

I do cheat and tie-in a piece of hi-vis Stren into the leaders I use for fishing deep in the water column when fishing early in the season. I haven't the ingrained ability to be able to pick up the gear on the first outing and manage subsurface takes with any great skill. Come July, I'm fine and can hook-up on the slightest twist. In March and April, I'm slow to see and slow to take up slack on a strike. A little more leader visibility helps me "re-tune" the lizard-brain so I don't have to think then react. I'll just be able to react.

Another cheat? A duo rig. Even deeply subsurface, the upstream approach outlined below is essentially the same when fishing a buoyant indicator fly over a spider. Just open your casting loop which for the majority of recreational anglers isn't a concern at all.

Above: a quick illustration of a scenario.

The Scenario:

I'm fishing upstream and have approached after thoroughly working the snag at the upper right of the picture. Edging across the current I see rising fish nearly mid-stream. I see feeding trout. If I'm fortunate, I see a large solitary trout who otherwise lives under the sweeper/snag pool but who is out on the town for a quick feed.

I'll say that there are several holding lies in this illustration. There's probably a nice cutbank in the bank's swale upstream of the sweeper/snag. There could well be a nice hole or gouge where I've shown the angler due to past high-water flows that washed out a soft bit of sand bottom during the spring spates. The current would shift at normal flows and I've seen trout holding in the deeper water especially when the bottom is black with mud or organic detritus.

No, here I see the riseforms from trout picking off bits from the bubble seam given by the tips of the mostly lateral timber or from the break of the current in its swing. I've labeled the area as "The Zone."

My bank is steep and alder-filled or otherwise undesirable as a platform. Frequently, some sort of draping limbs obstruct a backcast. It's Michigan.

My Approach:

I'm cutting the distance. I advance a half-step at a time. Small steps mean less wake, and less toe-force in the forward movement should I inadvertently strike a submerged boulder. To the trout, kicking rocks in wading boots makes a sound remarkably like the drum line of the Phantom Regiment. Not helpful.

I approach based on water depth. At waist deep, I crowd 20'. Maybe a little closer if I can sneak up to the tail of the lateral timber. Shallower water knee to mid-thigh depths I stand back to 30'.  I sometimes kneel if I have a shallow tailing bar. I don't need the leverage for a long cast so I minimize my form anticipating something going wrong.

The Rig:

Surface/near-surface observed feeding means a long tippet. In early summer, I frequently use 3' to 4'  of 4x on the end of a leader then 3' of 5x or 6x.  Fly size and whim determines my terminal tippet. A size 11 jingler gets the more aggressive tippet. A size 17 partridge-and-orange gets the 6x. I should also say that I hand-tie my leaders to turn over duo rigs. My leaders are a little stiffer so tapering the tippet helps.

The Preparation:

I pick the most downstream fish. I watch. I'm looking for patterns. Do they stray towards the lateral timber indicating some sort of nervous pattern? Are they "hogging" in mid-stream slashing at anything alive? Can I pick out the rise timing of individual fish? Are there bubbles from open-mouth surface feeding or are they bulges of a porpoising feed subsurface? I observe.

I can always change my fly before the cast is made.

I look nearby. Several times I've found a larger fish subtly feeding nearby while the smaller fish make a commotion in mid-stream. My best was spotting a nice brown feeding just outside the overhanging grass of a cutbank while smaller fish fed as a pod pretty much where I've shown "the zone" in the illustration above.

It only takes a couple minutes to look carefully.

The Cast:

I'm targeting a midstream fish.

The curve cast [Pete Kutzer demonstrating here] -- a laterally overpowered cast which curves the end of the leader and fly one way or another -- is perfect here. I rarely use it. Fancy casts amid structures and obstructions tossed in with the pressure of a sighted fish often means bad things. Remember, I'm not a commercial fisherman (e.g. guide, fly shop owner, outdoor writer, factory rep, pro-staff member). I'm working on being the occasional angler. Simple. Reliable. Repeatable. This is the mantra of success.

Your golf pro would say "play within yourself."

I deposit the soft-hackle upstream and to one side of my sighted fish. I anticipate the current providing a little cross-current drift (3" - 4") based on strength of flow and I use this to move the fly into my quarry's feeding zone. So, I'm casting 9" - 16" to the left bank side of my sighted fish. I'm dropping-in something like 2' - 3' upstream of the fish. I've made a choice. I'm letting the fish hit the fly on the drift. I want him to see, target, and take. 

I'll use a side-arm cast place the fly over a clear area judging the distance. Then, with my estimation complete I make the terminal cast.

If I've no place to prep the terminal cast, I'll use a roll-cast with my attention to the travel of my rod-tip. I execute a perry-poke with a short pile of line in front of me, aggressively build a "D" loop,  and cast forward to a hard stop a little higher in the motion than I first think necessary. My rod tip has no arc. None. (ed. - dual fly rigs need a little arc to open the loop and avoid tangles. I get excited and  omit this arc in pressure situations and tangle on the cast. Don't be like me.).

Having the line, leader, and fly straighten in the air and fall 1'-2' to the water with a little rebound slack is better than rolling across the water over the fish driving the fly into the surface with a "plop." Always better to "alight" on the water than pound and splash under pressure.

A little rebound induces natural leader slack and that helps the fly's initial drift, too. It lands and often spins a little frequently drawing a strike from other than the targeted fish. That sort of problem isn't  a bad one to have.

The Drift:

The drift is short. I'm covering at most one-third the distance of the cast. The fly is well in front of me when I decide to recast. I use a clean roll-cast pick-up to "snip" the fly off the water.

If I'm pressed for room and limited to roll-cast only I'll downcast the now aerialized line so that the fly is one rod length ahead and to my right.  I'll snap another roll-cast to a targeted fish. This is a single-handed spey technique.

Sometimes, I just reset and try the whole routine from speed zero rather than going cast-to-fish-to-cast. There's no harm in resetting. Too many anglers ruin things in haste.

The Set and Play:

I manage tension and line control by lifting my rod tip and using my line hand. I'll lift a rod tip to forty-five degrees to keep line off the water. Note I say lifting my rod tip and not my rod.

I can lift my whole arm 3" for a set or (preferred)  use a strip set from my line hand. What I don't want to do is raise my rod arm in managing line then attempt a set with my wrist striking with a rod-tip lift.

I don't want to end up with a strike at the end of a short managed drift with my rod arm raised as if I'm holding the leash on a giraffe. I've no control then. I'm "wrong footed" and cannot play a trout from that starting position.

I say this because I have seen anglers in such an awkward position.


My approach outlined here is overly exhaustive. I wanted to outline exactly what my upstream process involves so that anglers who only know the down-and-across swing have some idea of what approach might work. I catch fish in the manner described.

Ask a guide. He'll catch more fish in a different manner.

Upstream to feeding fish represents a great deal of fun. Upstream to habitat and pulling fish up to the surface is also great fun.

Fishing upstream in the bottom one-third of the water column is every bit as technical as freestyle nymphing. Yes, the fish do sometimes hook themselves. Far more often they'll spit the hook before you see the take unless your nymphing skills are strong. I don't recommend upstream dredging for trout, at first.

Upstream soft-hackle is one of the most enjoyable means of fishing water in small to mid-sized rivers. When the hatch season begins, it can be a deadly approach.

Hopefully, it leads to a double-digit trout day. It has for me.

Soft-hackles saved my Michigan fishing experience.


Sunday, February 11, 2018

Presenting Soft-Hackled Flies to Trout

Above: a ginger-palmered soft-hackle fly as a variation on the theme of the Stewart Spider. This fly is tied on a #8 curved-shank streamer hook from Unpqua. That's a tungsten bead-head.  It's a quite a departure from the #16 thread-bodied soft hackle (shown below #16 purple-and-grouse in a micro-wire wrapped body). 

The large bead-head fly is fished as any other soft-hackle might be. Odd enough given its substantial departure from the wonderful classic bits outlined in Robert Smith's wonderful The North Country Fly.

 My underlying premise is that soft-hackle flies are the foremost expression of pragmatic fly design and their manner of presentation is itself an expression of the same pragmatism. 

The soft-hackle anglers pursue what works without dogma or restraint. If it works, it becomes part of the general codex. It's passed along. It's taught. It's imitated. 

If the soft-hackle angler has a motto, it is this: curb your dogma. 

Irreverent? Sure. Successful? You betcha!

A minor digression for the Baked Goods Illustrated crowd. 

Scones this morning. A maple-pecan praline scone. There should be a decadent sticky glaze on these but here at Bear Central, we eat them without embellishment alongside strong coffee. We're not much on the over-sweet in this house.  This batch came out light but satisfyingly rich in flavor. I added a touch of nutmeg and the toasted pecans took to it quite nicely.

Back to fishing: Soft-Hackle Presentations

All of fly fishing is divided into two parts. We fish to trout or more frequently we fish to habitat.

I'd love to assert that I do most of my fishing upstream to rising trout just in that twilight of a quickly-cooling summer's evening. I'm doing well to encounter these magical conditions three or four times a year.

I live in a world of conflicting priorities: a spouse, a mortgage, the day job, the night gig, the love of a trout stream. I get out when I can get out and my rivers are three to four hours away. Like most of you, I fish when I can fish regardless of the hatch, the trout's state of mind, or the weather.

I spend the majority of my time fishing to where feeding trout "ought to be": habitat. 

There's a distinction here of note. I fish to feeding fish. 

My entire approach is based on the premise that I will hook more feeding fish than I will hook from territoriality, aggression response, or  whatever else motivates a trout to jaw a fly when it isn't hungry. Those too are valid approaches. They simply are not my approach.

The techniques I employ target equally a pod of feeding fish or the locations I believe should harbor a pod of feeding fish. I'll change my fly in reference to what I observe. I'll frequently sit on a piece of timber, light my pipe, and glass the water ahead and behind me both looking for clues as to what is going on below the surface. 

The Approaches Employed:

I fish soft hackles as I fish dries, nymphs, or streamers. I'll vary the approach based on conditions and regrettably, most of the time that means the physical condition of the river and where I might be able to stand to cover a bit of water. I've a lot of timber, bramble, and swift current to consider.

The Upstream

I fish soft-hackles on a ten-to-thirty degree angle to the current on an upstream lie. I'm fishing on the surface film, or in the top eight-to-twelve inches, on the top of the middle-third of the water column, or on the bottom one-third of the water column. I can be fishing full-column depending on bug activity.

I'm making short casts following a gentle and silent approach from downstream. Short casts Normally means twenty to thirty feet. This is my favorite approach when I have a chance to fish to a feeding trout. I use it plenty on fishing to habitat but I love watching the take from a feeding trout at close range.  

The fly never drifts downstream of me.

The Up and Across

I'm fishing the entire water column here again. I'll make a reach cast across strong current between my fly and my rod. I prefer not to do so but things are what they are.

I cast thirty to forty-five degrees off the current vector. I'm fishing very short stretches because drag will hit quickly. Sometimes drag is excessive after five feet of drift. Generally I can get a good dozen feet. There's no sense intentionally casting where you see the presentation will be ruined and the fly will look like inanimate detritus slashing through the current in an unnatural fashion.

I again can be fishing full-column depending on bug activity.

The fly drifts downstream no father than my feet or just slightly behind. When the fly drifts this far, it is because I want the recovery and re-cast not to have a chance to bother spotted fish. Otherwise, we're making short casts across the water. taking a step upstream, and repeating. 

The difficulty in controlling a fly makes the upstream move from the  recovery and re-cast productive. 

Attempting to cast and drift over fish while moving downstream will soon produce the arrows of fleeing fish you didn't know were present but which your angling efforts alerted and alarmed.

The Across

Here I am firmly fishing to habitat. I've been limited in my approach because of environmental conditions and casting laterally across the flow is as good as it gets. You read that correctly: the across method is a desperation approach.

I'll cast across perpendicular to the current or slightly upstream. I'm usually fishing the top one-third of the water column. 

This year, I will work on swinging my larger fly through the water "flying" it in the bottom two-thirds of the column more as one fishes to steelhead. I'll have to work before I can report back on that approach.

Here, I'm fishing in the top third and I'm fishing highly motive flies. The hackles are long and "flouncy."

I'll make a reach cast to put an immediate mend in my line. I'll use repeated vertical mends from the famed "greased line" technique. 

I need to manage my mends to control the line and first parts of the floating leader but not jerk the terminal end with the fly attached. This takes control, finesse, luck, and coordination I regret to do not readily possess. Every season I have to spend a couple afternoons re-learning the precise motion that becomes an automatic muscle-memory judgment by June.

I'm watching my tippet. I'm watching it as intently as a tight-line nymphing expert watches his leader's junction with the water. Most of the time, the fish catch themselves. Most of the time. If you give the fish a five count, he will figure out how to spit the hook.

This is an area fishing "the-only-way-to-get-there" type of compromise. I will allow the fly to swing at the end of the coverage and -- timber snags permitting -- I will pursue and actively fish the dangle. I will do this fish-to-the-dangle rarely.

Mostly, I'm fishing to a ten-foot long stretch of water and will fish that water, then move upstream and fish the next bit. I'm not sweeping or swinging. There's a lot going on to keep a good drift but managing that action across one hundred twenty degrees of arc ? No thanks. I'm not that good.

I'm resigned to "as good as it gets" on this one. Short controlled drifts predominate.

The Across and Down

I'm casting forty-five degrees or more down from the current. I'm fishing a tight line at least part of the time. I might be stack mending at the end or I might be using the greased-line repetitive mends as soon as the fly hits the water. 

Most often, this is indeed your grandfather's swing through a broad gentle flow when the water might hold fish but where your reading of the flow gives no immediate indication of where in the flow the fish are concentrated.

I'm fishing in the water column most often here. I'm maintaining at least a frequent direct contract with my fly.

I'm saying a little incantation designed to bring one of those Todd Moen filmed trout thrashing-up out of the water on a super-aggressive hammer take.

I've been known to mess with my gear, pack a pipe, open a beer, eat a cookie and sometimes all of these because it seems to be a fish-inducing sort of action.

Cast. Step. Think about the next more technical piece of water. Cast again, step. Play with the dangle. Step.

The Downstream.

I'm fishing here in the full water column. Hazardous wading has positioned me so that I have to approach a fish or an especially good piece of habitat from upstream.

I'll try and position myself low and about thirty degrees out of the flow line.  I'll cast well upstream of my target and use large lift-mend stack-mend actions to release arm-lengths of line into the flow. I'm watching my tippet.

I'll try to control my drift so that I cause a lift in the soft-hackled presentation at or slightly in front of the likely trout. I'll direct an errant drift down to one side of the trout and us a roll-cast pick-up to lift the fly cleanly from the water downstream of the fish.

Often, I'll do some sort of perry poke type of side delivery after a pick-up to dump the line into the flow well ahead to the trout then I'll work like mad to re-position line and slack in my hand for another go.

I don't read about a lot of success with this technique but I'll say it is deadly for me. 

The key? Innocent eye approach. A trout doesn't have great memory recall. After I make my first approach, I'll recover, reload, then count to at least twenty before trying again.

I've caught trout after seven unsuccessful passes. You wouldn't think you'd get more than one but you do ... if you're cautious.

Yet To Come 

I'll work up illustrations and have a little to say about each presentation here in successive posts. 

Soft-hackles can be actively fished as one would fish any other food imitation or lure. They can be fished in all these techniques successfully. It's the presentation that matters and with a soft-hackled fly, you're on a downstream run to the ice-cream shop as far as presentation goes. The flouncy hackle almost does all the work for you. 

The fly is imbued with the illusion of life. Just don't mess it up.

Sounds like everything else in life.

Thanks for reading


Friday, February 9, 2018

Not Just Swing

Lou the foxhound looking at me with some doubt.

I was buttonholed by a fellow the other day who knew I was a soft hackle sort of angler.

He asked "do you really just swing the fly all the time?"

Right there I knew. I knew we soft-hackle anglers have been buttonholed into the image of some grandfatherly sort casting spiders to the middle of the current and swinging big arcs.


I'd bet most of us of the soft-hackle persuasion rarely swing big careless arcs.

So how do we fish soft-hackles?

The next few entries will be my attempt to outline how I have come to fish soft hackles with emphasis the presentationist interpretation of fly fishing.

The swing? Love it.

It isn't used much.

I'm tying flies tonight.

Lou is snoring. Has to get his daily twenty.


Saturday, February 3, 2018

Swing for Trout

For the Baked Goods Illustrated portion of today's entry: blueberry muffins.

George, thinking of you here. I make a respectable cup of tea so if you happen to get over here on this side of the pond, let me know.

I've got berries secreted in the freezer.

Beargirl thought these were so good last Sunday morning ( I  made mini-muffins out of the same batch, too) that I think she's planning on making them for me in the morning. They'll be snow and snow blowing so I'll have muffins after clearing the drive.

Not a bad gig if you can get it.

I've been at the bench. Actually, I've been putting in a great deal of effort on the day job here the past couple of weeks. I've need the stress relief of the vise.

Trout dreams.

Some flies are posted below.

I say that  though really one should read Steve Bird's great pieces on trout spey suitable designs over on the Soft Hackle Journal (link right) and some of Alan's recent numbers at Small Stream Reflections, also linked at the right.

I'm looking forward to more soft hackle swings throughout the water column and less bloody nymphing come ice out. I'm not a fan of nymphing but will, if pressed.. Swing will help my outlook and make me less grizzly on the early water.

On my mind has been the need for a solid selection of soft hackles to use throughout the water column when swinging trout spey and for use with conventional single-hand 5wt, 4wt, and 3wt rods.

Michigan is ideally a 4wt state. 5wt and 6wt outfits are great for serious -- modern Galloup-style --streamer action, mousing, and the great Hex hatch. A twelve inch brown (still above the state average by 4 inches) does well on a 4wt rod.

A 3wt  does fine when the wind is down -- as it is most evenings.

Top Layer: 

Last year at some urging, I tied a few CDC based soft hackles to use in dry-fly season right on the top-water boundary film. These work well. I'll be tying many, many more this year. Dry fly hooks pinched barbless; thread bodies; CDC hackle.

Steve Bird has a class of dabblers he's recently outlined and will be featured in an upcoming article in Swing the Fly (a Magazine I heartily endorse. Get the three-year subscription. It's worth it.) I have to work these up.

Also, there are a class of long-hackled Scottish flies fished dry that are in the same design pattern as wet flies but are finished with soft hackle alone as opposed to Jinglers which seem to have stiff and soft hackles blending our American Catskill dry fly with the traditional loch fly design. I have a Davie McPhail example and will be working it up here in the coming weeks  .


This is the top eight to twelve inches of the stream. Classic soft hackles work great for me here on slightly heavier hooks tied with conventional grouse, pheasant, partridge, India hen neck, and starling hackles. I like lightly dubbed bodies on these flies but "lightly" can take a little work for me. I have to remind myself to use half as much dubbing as I'd want to use on almost every fly.


Here I have had some trouble. These are the two-to-four foot depths.

 I've tied lightly weighted soft-hackles (the Coug -- a red floss and herl bodied dun-hackled fly with 4 wraps of non-lead ) with good results for brookies.

I've had less success with browns. I suspect my drift is unduly influenced by the weight. In gin-clear water, the fly clearly moves differently from a natural nymph in the same strata of the water column. Life is insufficiently imitated.

I'm going to  work on managing my "intermediate" drifts more with flouro tippets and light sinking tips. I suspect that "contact drifting" these patterns with just the barest twitch from the twisted-hand retreive will give me the contact necessary to detect subtle takes.

More contact swing from larger size 8/10/12 3xl long flies tied expressly for the swing should also help.

I've used the Gamakatsu T10-6H salmon fly hooks this week to good effect. I like them.


Here, I am going with soft-hackled streamer designs. I'm looking at spade flies (outlined by Steve Bird again) coming from the steelhead side of the house and attached to true sinking tips in seven and ten foot lengths fished on tension.

[New Swing the Fly arrived today specifically discussing the swing under weight from tips. I'll read the article tomorrow morning over coffee. You read the NYT if you want. I'm reading about trout.]

Also, I'm tying soft hackle streamers such as the royal coachman plus a few hairwing patterns I tie so poorly I'm not going to mention them yet.

All in all, I'm satisfied that some techniques such as using dual-hackled heads,  more palmered bodies, and better attention to detail on some adapted Atlantic Salmon hairwing patterns will let me cover the big water and the deep holes.

I'm feeling confident I can relegate nymphing to a secondary effort.

I cannot completely give up the tight-line flymph. Indicator fishing (I like wool tuft indicators) is just not a desired option. I'm done fishing for catfish.

Maybe if I have to fish milkshake waters.

Some flies from this week. These are larger trout spey style flies in size 6, 8 and 10 in 3 xl.

Work to do. Work to do.